Google’s algorithm, as with its organic results, aims to weed out any misleading, irrelevant or ‘inferior articles’ (as Williams’ 1859 newspaper puts it) and, as outlined above, only charges companies for advertisements when, after Google has selected them as the most relevant, they are actively chosen by users. Pasquinelli’s criticism is primarily focused on PageRank, Google’s algorithm that ranks organic search results for each query. Google’s organic rankings are based on existing patterns of hyperlinks on the web and uses these as an indication of sentiment, much like an academic citation system does. The most significant of which is that tracing data patterns as a way of mapping ‘relevance’ draws from the existing behaviours of individuals rather than following any specific normative judgements established by Google. To Williams, advertising should be understood as a kind of grammar for a specific historical moment. Therefore, that Google receives revenue for the usefulness of these results is, from Pasquinelli’s perspective, wrong; as the responsibility for the curation and hierarchy lies with the community as a whole: journalists, bloggers, and any kind of user that contributes online. The key lesson is this: You do what you do best – that is, generate interesting content in your website about your products and services.
‘Marx, without reserve, equated the general intellect (that is, knowledge as principal productive force) with fixed capital, with the ‘objective scientific capacity’ inherent in the system of machines. Google’s financial profits are far from the only benefits of the web, but allowing them to be consolidated reduces the collective control of the general intellect, the ‘formal and informal knowledge, imagination, ethical propensities, mindsets, and ‘linguistic games”, that establish and sustain community. The general intellect includes, thus, formal and informal knowledge, imagination, ethical propensities, mindsets, and ‘linguistic games’. An important feature of the general intellect, as described here, is that it cannot be reduced to simply what a collective has produced, but what it is capable of: the shared ‘faculty of thinking; potential as such, not its countless particular realisations’ (2004, p 66). As contemporary capitalism continues its trend towards Post-Fordist relations that are underpinned by cognitive or immaterial labour, the general intellect can be functionalised like never before.
Pasquinelli’s description of Google as global rentier is based on the perspective that although we have Google to thank for providing us access to these sites, the much more significant gratitude must go to the digital community of users for creating this curated list through their collective actions online. However, the influence that Google has over the web means that although the web might be a collectively produced space, we have essentially placed its ownership in private hands. Here, the list of top 5 News Apps for Android is not over. That’s Rakuten RapidAPI’s list of top 10 best news APIs. At this point, Google is trying its best to give the right kick start to mobile based advertisements. There are no pictures or videos but many feeds available right in the palm of your hand. After Lollipop there is some major update is expected for Android OS, if you are planning to buy a new phone or not but this update is quite exciting and thrilling. A Baptist church in the town of Bloomfield, Michigan was planning an event with the provocative name: “9/11 forgotten? It is worth noting that the kinds of traditional mass-market advertisements using slogans, celebrities and jingles that play to our ‘basic personal relationships and anxieties’ (Williams, 1980, p 180) are still with us.
Mass cultural appeal gives way to the long tail of niche commerce; one-way channels of communication and influence become algorithmic feedback loops based around the harvesting of personal data; the growth of immaterial labour expands the reification of previously unmarketable activates into profitable goods and services. Getting billions more people online would provide a valuable new supply of eyeballs and personal data for ad targeting. Or is this (as some people have theorized) a clever publicity stunt designed to drive sales? So, although a page with numerous hyperlinks pointing to it (or to continue the citation metaphor, a widely-referenced article) might not have been judged as good it is certainly relevant to a particular group of people. Have a deep knowledge of the device before you pay for it. Forces have always tried to create differences so huge that we won’t find ourselves in place of compromise. Many kinds of advertisements that would not be out of place in the context of twentieth-century television or billboards can be found online, from the pre-roll ads of YouTube to the banner ads underneath the masthead of The New York Times (see Fig. 4). These advertisements that borrow a familiar form have, however, been incorporated into a different model of how media forms function online.