Even if users are not explicitly altering the language they use online, anyone who uses the web communicates in a context where economic value alters every part of their linguistic landscape. In addition, the economic value of different languages is not the same, and therefore, as discussed later, each language group is affected to a different extent. By focusing on the wider effects, rather than specifically the niche group of writers, the consequences of online advertising supported content demonstrates a proliferation of Post-Fordist logic, even in the lives of those whose employment is firmly material, industrial, or Fordist. In addition, this example only highlights the visible changes that might seem to only effect a niche group of people. Google has guidelines for prohibited AdWords content,Footnote 6 which mostly relate to more general country specific laws.Footnote 7 In addition, the process of having to choose from a pre-established list of products and services means that many taboo grey areas are condensed into more general subjects and thus implicitly censored. Recent real-life examples include its algorithms manipulating data to gain political outcomes in the Brexit referendum, the Trump-Clinton election, the French presidential election, and the UK general election.
Finally, most of the research on the topic is theoretical-based or explore confidential data in a restricted simulation environment. Finally, the ‘rank of an ad is calculated by multiplying the bid times the quality score’ therefore an ‘ad with a good score and medium bid can overcome a less efficient ad with a higher bid. I think Google because it is quicker and if you have i google you can get interactive pets and the news and stuff like that. I think Trump is in the White House because of me. In focusing on how AdWords reifies language online and how AdSense incentivises fake news, this article demonstrates two examples in which all web users are impacted by Post-Fordist effects, even if their lives could not seem further from that of the example outlined above. There are numerous dimensions to such an arrangement and different people are implicated into Post-Fordist labour relations to different degrees. However, this article aims to show that Google’s business draws everyone online into various immaterial labour arrangements with far reaching consequences, many of which are difficult to detect.
Long accustomed to guarding their computer algorithms and business practices in secrecy, the tech companies have adopted a similar “black-box” approach for their news services. In this regard, Google have not gone back on their original statement; however, the problem remains: if a set of results is good enough, a user will never need to click on the sponsored link. ‘vacation’-and define the maximum price they would be ready to pay if a user arrives on their site by clicking on the link of the ad’ (2014, p 58). Keywords selected by advertisers are then used interchangeably with other similar words selected by Google. The consequence is an undermining of personal data and the increased likelihood of the site being used for data mining purposes by individuals, organisations or entities with potentially nefarious motives, and possibly leading to more “government by algorithmic regulation” (Ellis 2016, online). Traffic to the site by Discover. 760 million instances of a user clicking through and reading a fake news story, or about three stories read per American adult’ (2017, p 212). In addition, this figure does not even include users who partially read stories or view headlines within Facebook, Twitter, or Google News directly.
In particular, the writing, reading and sharing of fake news articles can be seen as components of an immaterial labour arrangement. But Beyonce seen eating at Quiznos, who cares? In particular, this section draws on the work of Frederic Kaplan who argues that AdWords constitutes a form of ‘linguistic capitalism’ (2014, p 58), in the tradition of Post-Fordism; the conclusion of which is that Google’s mode of advertising is having a widespread effect on all language usage on the web. Eliminating the language barriers web portals offer complete freedom to the viewers and readers to choose their language preferences while browsing for the entertainment news. Google Trends output for Web search queries for symptoms of West Nile fever in the United States from January 2004 to March 2009. The search volume for “rash” is the denominator used for comparison with the search volumes for the other symptoms. Despite the plans of the founders for Google to remain in the academic realm, Google generates revenue when users click on advertisements, not when users find successful answers to their queries. A key aspect of AdWords is designing advertisements with specific kinds of search queries in mind.